Pro-rakyat vs Ekonomi kerakyatan , benarkah neolib setan?

Pemilu Pilpres kali ini memang luar biasa, perdebatan baik yang produktif dan tidak produktif mendominasi media masa dari Koran hingga facebook, topiknya pun bervariasi dari perdebatan agama hingga hankam. Temanya pun selalu menarik walaupun kadang tidak substantif.

Di ekonomi, debat yang menyita tenaga dan cenderung mempertunjukan egoisme adalah kerakyatan vs neolib a.k.a saling tunjuk dan saling klaim menjadi "angels and demons". Padahal perdebatan ini tidak pernah ada di literatur ekonomi, bahkan kedua term ini cenderung tidak jelas kelaminnya. Term washington consensus dilahirkan oleh Williamson yang menyarankan beberapa poin penting demi menyelamatkan kolaps nya perekonomian negara amerika latin, intinya adalah penghematan pengeluaran pemerintah, pengurangan beban dari BUMN yang tidak produktif, dan perbaikan kebijakan moneter yang menjamin tersedianya modal bagi ekonomi, yakni investasi dan pasar modal. Term ini yang "disalah gunakan" oleh para politisi untuk menghasilkan term neolib.

Washington consensus sendiri ditujukan bagi negara yang sedang gonjang ganjing dan nyaris bangkrut, seperti yang dikatakan williamson sendiri, washington consensus adalah anjuran bagi perbaikan kesehatan ekonomi, sama sekali bukan meminimalkan peran negara dalam semua lini,tetap masih ada peran negara yang proporsional. Dalam keadaan negara terbelenggu hutang dan paceklik pendapatan seperti negara latin, adalah wajar jika anjurannya adalah untuk berhemat.

Washington consensus adalah saran pilihan kebijakan yang sama sekali berbeda dengan neolib yang lebih ke tataran "konsep" individualisme, kebebasan individu, dan hak milik. Neolib adalah konsep bahwa individu bertanggung jawab atas miliknya sendiri, dan negara tidak berhak ikut campur untuk mengatur individu.

permasalahan mendasar dari segala kerumitan ini adalah, kita pernah mengalami mimpi buruk di kala krisis, IMF yang bertugas membantu menyehatkan perekonomian
sedikit "khilaf" dalam mengeneralisasi masalah. Sebenarnya kebijakan apapun pasti menghasilkan konsekuensi, sayangnya biaya yang dibayar dikala itu menjadi terlalu besar.Ibaratnya ketika tubuh didiagnosa diabetes akut, dan amputasi menjadi saran , sedangkan si dokter tidak menganalisa efek psikologis yang timbul ex-post si pasien menjadi suka mabuk mabukan dan stress, akibatnya kesehatan pun menurun drastis. Padahal jika saja amputasi tidak dijalankan segera, kesehatan si pasien juga tidak terlanjur baik, bahkan vulnerable, karena diabetes akut akan sulit menyembuhkan luka, tertusuk duri saja resiko nya bisa maksimal.

Seperti analogi dilema dokter diatas, permasalahannya adalah tidak terintegrasinya unit pemulihan dan unit reaksi cepat, kemampuan untuk mengatasi efek negatif dari kebijakan struktural di atas. Ini yang rodrik (Prof Ekonomi Harvard) analogikan sebagai "institution", bagaimana sebuah negara mampu mengatasi konflik sosial yang (mungkin) terjadi ketika negara terpaksa tidak mampu lagi menanggung beban yang kian berat. Rodrik lebih lanjut menawarkan konsep "augmented washington consensus", yang merupakan kebijakan makroekonomi yang didukung dengan kemampuan redistribusi pemerintah ke bagian dari warga negara yang akan paling rentan terpukul. Semakin baik kebijakan redistributif pemerintah semakin mampu pemerintah fleksibel dalam mengatur perannya dalam perekonomian.

Bagaimana dengan Indonesia? saya merasa lebih tepat negara kita sudah melangkah lebih maju dalam mendekati konsep Dani Rodrik, kebijakan anti korupsi,dan berbagai konsep redistribusi sudah di jalur yang benar,perlu perbaikan? tentu saja.

orang orang yang senang memaki neolib dengan pemahaman terbatasnya mencampur adukan kapitalisme,liberalisme,Hutang-isme melawan Nasionalisme,Sosialisme, kerakyatan-isme dan segala tetek bengek isme isme yang tidak aplikatif dan jargon semu.

Ekonomi kerakyatan yang berbasis pertanian dianggap seperti (calon) malaikat,padahal konsep ini mengandung resiko besar. Ketika semua beban ditanggung negara, negara akan secara subjektif memilih beban mana yang akan ia tanggung, lebih buruk lagi sebagai alternatif ketika semua beban sedemikian berat hingga negara itu jatuh,terpuruk dan tak mampu bangkit lagi.

"sistem ekonomi yang baru" ini penuh mimpi indah yang membuat orang lupa satu hal,satu mimpi buruk yang selalu menjadi momok bagi para ekonom : -inflasi- pajak yang tidak pandang bulu, bahkan cenderung lebih besar pada yang miskin di banding yang kaya. Omong kosong jika seseorang yang beretorika pro-miskin dan pro-rakyat jika di setiap pidatonya tidak disebut sebut bahaya inflasi. Inflasi tidak hanya membuat orang menjadi makin miskin dari waktu ke waktu, tapi kebijakan distributif pemerintah juga menjadi tidak efektif dan hanya memperparah masalah. Berapapun uang yang dihamburkan ke nelayan dan petani tidak akan efektif selama harga beras dan minyak tidak stabil.

yang lucu, ada pasangan cawapres dan capres yang katanya pro rakyat tidak mengerti masalah ini. (1) menolak BLT yang katanya hanya permen, (2) menolak modal asing katanya hanya hot money, (3)ekonomi kerakyatan yang hanya nelayan dan petani

BLT itu hak warga negara miskin, dan cermin redistribusi pemerintah, Modal asing itu penting buat stabilisasi nilai tukar dan inflasi, Sedangkan kebijakan yang hanya memikirkan harga beras naik, bukan hanya tidak efektif buat para petani, tapi juga menambah rakyat miskin (petani dan non petani) semakin banyak karena inflasi yang selalu seiring dengan harga bahan pokok.

menarik,sekarang orang bebas memperdebatkan isu isu sensitif dan "ide ide besar". Yang memprihatinkan sebenarnya bukan perdebatannya, tapi "ilmu berdebat" dan pengertian tentang esensi apa yang diperdebatkan.

Seperti halnya menonton film "Angels and Demons", akan lebih baik kita melihat di sisi yang lebih luas tanpa menilai mana yang "demons" mana yang "angels", mari menilai dari mata yng jernih,maka kebenaran akan menampakkan dirinya dalam waktu dekat karena kebenaran itu tidak memihak.

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